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Cancer Discov:科學家開發出診斷膀胱癌的新型尿液檢測技術

近日,一項刊登在國際雜志Cancer Discovery上的一篇研究報告中,來自斯坦福大學醫學中心的科學家們通過研究開發出了一種診斷并監測膀胱癌的高靈敏性尿液檢測技術,這種技術是通過對患者尿液樣本中的癌癥DNA片段進行分析來判讀結果的,研究者表示,這種針對膀

近日,一項刊登在國際雜志Cancer Discovery上的一篇研究報告中,來自斯坦福大學醫學中心的科學家們通過研究開發出了一種診斷并監測膀胱癌的高靈敏性尿液檢測技術,這種技術是通過對患者尿液樣本中的癌癥DNA片段進行分析來判讀結果的,研究者表示,這種針對膀胱癌的新型診斷技術重點對尿液樣本進行分析,尿液與膀胱腫瘤有著密切的關聯,而且膀胱腫瘤會向尿液中釋放一些DNA。

圖片來源:Mark Tuschman

膀胱癌是第六大常見的癌癥,每年在美國有超過8萬人被診斷為膀胱癌,當前膀胱鏡檢查是最準確的膀胱癌診斷技術,這是一種對膀胱組織可視化的侵入性手段,其能采集膀胱組織樣本進行分析,而另外一種方法則是通過細胞學檢測來尋找癌細胞,這種方法雖然是無創的,但其敏感性卻并不理想。

此前研究人員能通過利用一種名為Capp-Seq(癌癥個體化的深度測序手段)的技術來尋找患者機體血液中循環的腫瘤DNA片段;而本文研究中,研究人員通過對該技術進行修飾來將其應用于尋找患者尿液中的膀胱癌DNA片段,文章中,研究者對67名健康個體和118名早期膀胱癌患者進行分析,在其治療前或監測期間收集尿液進行分析,研究者發現,通過檢測尿液中的膀胱癌,他們就能有效識別出早期膀胱癌患者,這樣就能對患者及時進行治療了。這種新型檢測技術能準確識別出83%的早期膀胱癌患者,而當前臨床中的尿液細胞學檢測則僅能識別出14%的膀胱癌患者。

這種新型檢測技術的最大優勢之一就是其還能幫助檢測膀胱癌患者在治療后疾病是否會復發,研究者Alizadeh表示,相比膀胱鏡檢查而言,他們能平均提前2.7個月檢測出膀胱癌的復發狀況;在這種新型檢測手段的幫助下,研究者們幾乎能夠檢測出所有復發性的膀胱癌病例,而且其敏感性是膀胱鏡檢查和細胞學檢查的兩倍。

研究者認為,通過在體液中而不是在血液中尋找癌癥DNA的手段或許能夠得到更加廣泛的應用,而這種新型檢測技術未來或許也能通過檢測唾液來診斷口腔癌,通過檢測腦脊液來診斷神經性癌癥,以及通過檢測痰液標本來診斷肺癌。

原始出處:

Jonathan C. Dudley, Joseph Schroers-Martin, Daniel V. Lazzareschi, et al. Detection and surveillance of bladder cancer using urine tumor DNA, Cancer Discovery (2018). DOI: 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-18-0825

 
 
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